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MAINFRAME REFRESHER PDF
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Popular Posts. To retain the values of operands participating in the operation. The resultant value of operation exceeds any of the operand size. It is usually coded after the fieldto be rounded.
We can use arithmetic symbols than keywords and so it is simple and easy to code. Left to right — 1. Parentheses 2. Exponentiation 3. Multiplication and Division 4. Addition and SubtractionCaution: All arithmetic operators have their own explicit scope terminators.
It is suggested to usethem. It returnscontrol back to OS.
It returnscontrol back to main program. It just gives the control back from where it received the control. Collating Sequence There are two famous Collating Sequence available in computers. The result of arithmetic andalphabetic comparison would be same in both collating sequences whereas the sameis not true for alphanumeric comparison. The syntaxof IF statement is given below: THENis a noise word and it is optional.
This rule can be overridden by using parentheses. If you forgotthe difference between statement and sentence, refer the first page. Implied operand: In compound conditions, it is not always necessary tospecify both operands for each condition.
It can be used in the following way.
Any simple, relational, class, sign test can be negated using NOT. Example ZERO Anycomplex condition can be given in the WHEN clause. Break statement is not needed,as it is so in other languages. Statement1 Statement2. It executes all the instructions coded in PARA-1 and then transfers the controlto the next instruction in sequence. This is equal to DO.. END structure of other languages. The identifiers used in the UNTIL condition s must be altered within theparagraph s being performed; otherwise the paragraphs will be performedindefinitely.
If the condition in the UNTIL clause is met at first time of execution, thennamed paragraph s will not be executed at all. N can be literal defined as numeric item in working storage or hard codedconstant.
If the condition is again false, repeatthis process till the condition is satisfied. It is used as a singlestatement in a paragraph that indicate the end of paragraph s execution. GO TO Usage: In a structured top-down programming GO TO is not preferable.
The readability of the program will also bebadly affected. But still GO TO can be used within the paragraphs being performed.
It can be defined as elementary or group item. Initialization of large tableoccurrences with specific values are usually done using perform loops in proceduredivision.
Simple tables can be initialized in the following way. Dynamic array is the array whose size is decided during runtime just before theaccess of first element of the array. Sometimes, you may face a question like how to randomly access theinformation in the sequential file of 50 records that contains all the designation andthe respective lower and higher salary information.
Obviously, OS does not allow you to randomly access the sequence file. Youhave to do by yourself and the best way is, load the file into a working storage tablein the first section of the program and then access as you wish. The table look-up can be done in two ways. If thecondition is met, the table look-up is completed. If the condition is not met, thenindex or subscript is incremented by one and the next entry is searched and theprocess continues until a match is found or the table has been completely searched.
SET indexname-1 TO 1. Condition-1, Condition-2 compares an input field or search argument with a tableargument. SET statement Syntax: Identifier-2 and identifier-3 are subscripted items and dataname-1 anddataname-2 are working storage items that are not subscripted. Compare the item to be searched with the item at the center.
If it matchesfine, else repeat the process with the left or right half depending on where the itemlies.
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Any logical comparison is possible. Only AND is possible in compound conditions. Expanded nested perform is available forprocessing multi level tables. The syntax of this perform is given below: The contained program s maythemselves contain yet other program s. PGMB is nested a program in theexample below: If you want to manipulate the data before feeding to sort, preferinternal sort.
In all other cases, external sort is the good choice.
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Internal sort, in turninvokes the SORT product of your installation. In the run JCL, allocate atleast three sort work files. It would significantly improve the performance. If the sort is successful, thevalue will be 0 else Itshould not be explicitly opened or closed. Sometimes it would be more efficient to process data before it is sorted,whereas other times it is more efficient to process after it is sorted.
If we intend toeliminate more records, then it would be better preprocess them before feeding toSORT. If we want to eliminate all the records having spaces in the key field then itwould be efficient if we eliminate them after sorting. Because the records with blankkey comes first after sorting.
USING is mandatory. Main String is identifier-1 and count is stored in identifier Literal-1 orIdentifier-3 is a character or group-of-characters you are looking in the main-string. String Starting-Position: When it is used in array elements, the syntax is Array-element occurrence Starting-Position: Common routines like error routine, date validation routine are coded in a libraryand bring into the program by COPY.
Master files are used in multiple programs. Their layout can be placed in onecopybook and be placed wherever the files are used. It promotes programstandardization since all the programs share the same layout and the same datanames. This reduces coding and debugging time. Change in layout needs change incopybook only.
It is enough if we just recompile the program for making the newcopy effective. Copybooks can be used in the following paragraphs. CALL statement Sub-Programs When a specific functionality need to be performed in more than oneprogram, it is best to write them separately and call them into each program. SubPrograms can be written in any programming language. They are typically written ina language best suited to the specific task required and thus provide greaterflexibility.
Main Program Changes: CALL statement is used for executing the sub-program from the mainprogram. A sample of CALL statement is given below: PGM2 is called here. WS-VAR1 is passed by reference. As we have already mentioned, the linkage section is used for accessing externalelements. As these working storage items are owned by main program, to accessthem in the sub-program, we need to define them in the linkage section. In addition to define them in linkage section, the procedure division should be codedwith these data items for address-ability.
Thisreturns the control back to main program. If the sub program is modified then it needs to be recompiled. The need formain program recompilation is decided by the compiler option used for the mainprogram. The modified subroutine will be in effect during the run. Identified by Call variable and the Ex: By default, call variables and any un- resolved calls are considered as dynamic.
If the subprogram undergoes If the subprogram undergoes change, change, sub program and main recompilation of subprogram is enough. More flexible. Used for finding length of group item that spanned across multiple levels.
The file is allocated to your program by this statement. The mode of OPEN decides the operation allowed and the initial pointer inthe dataset. After the processing, close the file to disconnect it from theprogram. If not, an execution error will occur. The file can also be dynamically allocated instead of static allocation in JCL.
Default is Sequential. It is default access mode and it is used to access the records ONLY insequential order. To read th record, first 99 records need to be read and skipped. It is mixed access mode where the file can be accessed in random as well assequential mode in the program. Reading the details of all the employees between Firstrandomly access th employee record, then read sequentially till th employeerecord.
It should be unique and part of indexedrecord structure. After every file operation, the file status should be checked for allowable values.
This is a 6- byte field in working storage. The number of buffers to be allocated for the file is coded here. By default two buffers will be allocated if the clause is not coded.
Since similar optionis available in JCL, this is not coded in program. It can be mentioned as number of logicalrecords OR number of characters, that is multiple of logical record length. Ganesh Mandpe. Popular in Cobol. Satish Kumar. Yogesh Jillanda. Ravi Venkatesh K P. Mainframe Architecture Product Overview 9 1. Gon Esteban. Harsha K Gowda. Mayank Chauhan. Khalid Khan. Julio Vilca. Anusha Ramamurthy. Sujay Deva. Venkat Ramana. Alexander Vilcachagua Moreno. Utpal Kumar Pal.Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.
I shouldnot count right hand spaces. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Main Program Changes: Provided hardware supports this feature When you close the file, the tape is normally rewound.
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