From: Kitab ta'lim al-muta'allim fi t ariq al-ta'allum / [Burhan al-Din al-Zarnuji]. Ta' lim al-muta'allim fi t ariq Object ID: Download: Export as PDF». Curriculum Conception in the Perspective of the Book Ta'lim Al-Muta'allim .. One of the Islamic intellectual works embracing the treatise is the kitab Ta'lim. PDF | This article examines the requirements for quality learning in Islam from the perspective of al-Zarnūjī and according to Al-Zarnūjī, Ta'līm al-Muta'allim, ethics, learning requirements, Islam Etika belajar dalam kitab ta'lim muta'allim .
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Abstract. Ta'lim Muta'allim is one of the monumental works of Shaykh Tajuddin Nu'man ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Khalil al-. Zarnuji, who lived in the 6th century H. Keywords traditional wisdom, al-Zarnūjī, Ta'līm al-Muta'allim, mechanical rules, Etika belajar dalam kitab ta'lȋm muta'allim Miftachul Huda is a researcher at . As Al-Zarnuji argued in his kitab Ta'lim al Muta'allim, the decline of the learners in acquisition of knowledge is due to their ignorance for the true rules and.
Indeed, Allah swt answers those who call upon Him and does not disappoint those who place hope in Him. Imam Qiwam-ud-Din Hammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ismail as-Saffar al-Ansari recited a poem to us composed by al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Sarakhsi, who had it dictated to him: Serve knowledge in a way useful [to you] and keep its lesson alive by praiseworthy action.
It is necessary to pursue knowledge by means of discussion, debate, and inquiry. It is [also] essential that [one do these things] with fairness, circumspection, and deliberation. One must fortify himself against altercation and anger. This, however, is attained only through circumspection, the avoidance of violent dispute, and fairness not through hostility and anger.
For [argument and discussion] aimed at forcing [one's views upon another] and crushing an opponent are illicit. They are permissible only when they seek to bring out the truth. Ruse and tricks are not admissible [in discussion] except when the opponent himself is quibbling and is not really seeking the truth. Muhammad ibn Yahya used to say when encountering a problematic question [in a debate] and an answer does not readily present itself to him, What you have compelled me to admit [appears] to be necessarily [true], and I shall examine it further: And above all who have knowledge is [Allah swt ] the All-Knowing Quran, The usefulness of posing and discussing questions is greater than the usefulness of mere repetition, since in [discussing questions] there is repetition and an additional element.
It is said that posing questions for an hour is better than a month of repetition; but this holds good only when the discussion is carried on with someone who has a just and candid nature.
Beware of an argument with an adversary who is a quibbler of a perverse nature, for [undesirable] character creeps into [one] stealthily; habits are contagious and proximity [to those of lowly character] leaves its traces. It is further said that knowledge has this condition [of being contagious] for the one who serves it, such that it should make all men the servants of knowledge. It is incumbent upon the student that he ponder long and often on the more subtle matters of knowledge and that he accustom himself to this; for only by reflection can subtle problems be solved.
For this reason it is said, Reflect and you will reach a solution But it is essential to reflect before speaking in order [to say] what is correct. Speech is like an arrow; it is necessary to aim it by way of reflection before uttering anything. This way one hits the target. Regarding the principles of jurisprudence [usul-ull-fiqh], it is a major axiom [maxim] that the discourse of a jurist in debate be based on thorough reflection. It is said, moreover, that the first principle of intelligence is practicing discourse with consideration and circumspection.
Somebody said, I recommend to you five things when composing your discourse that is, if you are obedient to a well-meaning advisor. Do not neglect the purpose of the discourse, its time, its quality, its quantity, and its place. Under all circumstances and times [the student should endeavor to profit from everybody present. The Messenger saw said, Wisdom is a wandering beast of the believer wherever he finds it, he should seize it. It is said, Seize whatever is clear and discard whatever is turbid.
I heard Imam Fakhr-ud-Din al-Kasani say that Abu Yusuf r had a servant who [for a time] was given in guardianship to Muhammad [ibn al-Hasan] r , who said to her, Do you remember anything 9 learned that Abu Yusuf said? She said: Nothing except that he used to repeat frequently: A share in tribal holdings is not transmissible by will. So Muhammad remembered this from her. It so happened that this question had long perplexed Muhammad ibn Hasan, but his doubt was removed by the statement.
He then realized that knowledge could be attained from everyone. It is for this reason that Abu Yusuf, when he was asked, How do you attain your knowledge? It was said to Ibn Abbas, In what way did you pursue knowledge?
He answered, With the aid of a tongue fond of asking and a heart full of good sense. Students of knowledge are called What-do-you-sayers simply because in their early days they often ask What do you say concerning this question? Abu Hanifa r used to study by posing questions often and discussing them in his shop when he was a cloth merchant. Through this example does one recognize that the acquisition of knowledge and learning can be linked to the earning of a livelihood.
Abu Hafs al-Kabir used to work for a living and at the same time repeat assiduously [his studies]. If a seeker of knowledge must make a living to support his family and other [dependents], then he should work for his livelihood and [at the same time] repeat and discuss [his lessons].
One who is of sound mind and body, there is no excuse [in poverty] to neglect study and learning, for no one was poorer than Abu Yusuf, and this did not prevent him from learning. But what of the person who possesses much wealth?
Let wealth that is righteously attained benefit the righteous man [Hadith, Musnad Imam Ahmad] who plods on in the path of learning. It was said to a learned man, How did you acquire knowledge? He said: Through a rich father. By means of his [wealth] he supported learned and good men. This was the reason that my knoeledge increased.
Gratitude for the blessing of intelligence and knowledge also increases knowledge. As often as I understood an item of learning and apprehended a point of law or a nugget of wisdom, I proclaimed Al-hamdu lil-laah subsequently, my knowledge was increased.
As such, it is necessary in the quest for learning to occupy oneself with giving thanks by way of the tongue, the heart, the hands, and one's wealth. For [Allah swt ] is the One who guides those who seek His guidance. So the followers of the truth-who are the followers of the Prophets way [sunnah] and the community of believers - seek the truth from Allah swt who Himself , the Truth, the Elucidator, the Guide, and the Protector [against error]. So Allah swt leads [followers of the truth] and protects them from error.
However, people of misguidance admire their own intelligence and their opinions.
They seek the truth [only] from mortals who are weak and rely only on reasoning [without revelation from Allah swt ]. For human reasoning does not encompass everything in all respects, just as vision does not reveal all things to the sight.
These people are incapable [of the highest truth]. Consequently, they go astray and cause others to stray [with them]. It is said he who knows himself knows his Lord.
For when one realizes his own limitations, he knows more of the power of Allah swt , and he [learns] not to rely on himself and his own intellect. Instead, he places his trust in Allah swt and seeks the truth from Him and those who rely on Allah swt , He suffices them and will guide them along the straight path. He who possesses wealth should not be miserly. In fact, it is necessary to seek refuge in Allah swt from miserliness.
The Prophet saw said, What affliction is worse than miserliness? The father of imam al-Hulwani was poor and sold sweets. He used to give sweets to the scholars of law and implore that they pray for his son.
By virtue of his generosity, trust, and supplication, his son attained [eminence as a scholar]. With wealth one can download books, as well as concern himself with having books written, for this aids in [attaining] knowledge and learning. Imam Muhammad ibn Hasan r had so much wealth that he had over caretakers looking after his assets.
Subsequently, he spent all of his wealth toward the pursuit of knowledge. So when Abu Yusuf r saw him dressed in shabby clothe, he sent him some splendid clothe.
But he [ash-Shaybani] refused them saying, Good come to you in advance; but not for us, they are deferred [until the hereafter]. Although the acceptance of a gift is in accordance with the Prophets sunnah, he refured these clothes perhaps because he saw it as an abasement of himself.
The prophet saw said, Believers are not allowed to debase themselves. It is reported that the scholar Fakr-ul-Islam al-Arsabandi collected the rinds of melons that were discarded. Subsequently, he washed and ate them.
A bondmaid saw him and informed her master. He then told her to prepare a meal for [al- Arsabandi] and invited him to dine, but Arsabandi did not accept [since he felt it would abase him]. So it is essential in the quest for knowledge that one pursue the highest aspiration without coveting the wealth of people.
The prophet saw said, Beware of being covetous for it is ever-present poverty. Likewise, one should never be miserly 10 with whatever wealth he has; instead let one spend it on himself or on others.
It is said, People are in poverty because they fear poverty. Long ago, people used to learn handicrafts and [simultaneously] pursue knowledge, so that they would not covet the wealth of other people. In the [Book of] Wisdom it is said, He who seeks to grow rich from the wealth of men becomes poor. A scholar who becomes covetous no longer preserves the integrity of knowledge and no longer speaks the truth. And for this reason did [the Prophet saw said:], The deliverer of sacred Law seeks refuge in Allah swt from [covetousness], saying, I take refuge in Allah swt from covetousness which leads to disgrace.
It is essential for believers not to hope [for anything] unless it comes from Allah swt and not to fear anything except from Allah swt Himself.
But if one does not sin against Allah swt out of fear of his fellow men, and thus observes the ordinances of sacred Law, then he fears no one other than Allah swt.
The same principle applies to hope. It is necessary in seeking knowledge that one enumerate [compute] and measure for oneself the amount of repetition [required to learn a lesson], for one's mind is not at ease until it attains this [appropriate] amount.
It is further necessary to repeat yesterday's lesson five times; the lesson of the preceding day four times; the lesson of the prior day three times; the one prior to that two times, and that of the day before one time.
This ensures that [the lesson is] kept in memory. And it is essential not to become accustomed to repeating [things] silently, since it is necessary that learning and repetition be carried on with vigor and enthusiasm, lest one break the habit of repetition. It is not necessary to speak in a loud voice when talking to oneself, for this too impedes repetition.
It is reported that Abu Yusuf vigorously and enthusiastically discussed matters of jurisprudence with learned men. And his son-in-law accompanied him and marveled at his performance. He said, I know that he has been hungry for five days; and still, he discusses with vigor and enthusiasm.
It is essential that there be no [abrupt] intermission in the pursuit of learning, for this is indeed harmful. It was our teacher, Imam Burhan-ud-Din, who said, I became superior to my companions because I took no intermission in my pursuits. It was reported by Shaykh-ul-Islam Ali al-Asbijabi that there occurred during the time of his studies a break [in his formal schooling] during a period of twelve years because of the overthrow of the government.
So he left the country with his companion he used to debate with, and did not cease his discussions. The two of them used to sit [together] for discussion each day and did not neglect this during this twelve-year period. Later his companion became the venerable Shaykh al- Islam for the Shafi'ites.
Imam Fakhr-ul-Islam Qadikhan said, It is important in studying sacred Law to memorize one particular book of law constantly, so that afterwords it will be easy for one to retain whatever legal information one hears. Hence we should strive to memorize a muktasar compendium in whatever Madhab we have espoused. Relying on Allah swt It is necessary in the quest for knowledge that one rely entirely on Allah swt and not be worried about matters [like] material sustenance; one should not occupy one's mind with [such concerns].
Imam al-Adham [the greatest Imam] Abu Hanifa r related what he heard from Abdullah ibn al-Hasan al-Zabidi, A person who devotes himself to learning Allah swt 's religion, Allah swt gives him sufficient care and provides for him in unexpected ways. So he who occupies himself with matters of sustenance, such as food and clothing, is not yet free enough for the acquisition of noble traits and elevated matters, [like knowledge and scholarship].
It is said [derisively], Renounce noble matters and do not journey to seek them. Remain instead where you are, for you are zealous for food and clothing. A man said to Mansur al-Hallaj, Give me sound advice. He said, [My advice] concerns your own soul. If you do not keep it occupied it will keep you occupied. It is necessary, therefore, for everyone to occupy himself with good deeds so that the soul does not concern itself with [mundane] desires.
The intelligent man should not be eager for the affairs of this world, since this kind of anxiety and grief does not avert calamity and is really of no use. It is harmful, in fact, to the spirit, the mind, and the body. So one should attend to matters pertaining to the Hereafter, since these [matters] prove beneficial. As for [the Prophet's] saying There are sins whose only punishment is through concerning [oneself] with earthly life.
For indeed this [minimum] amount of concern and effort [for this world] actually pertains to the deeds related to the Hereafter. It is essential in the search for knowledge to reduce one's attachment to worldly affairs as much as one can. Therefore, [students] elect to go abroad [in order to acquire knowledge]. One should bear patiently with the labors and hardships in 11 the journey of learning, just as Moses pbuh said during [his] journey for knowledge, Indeed, we have found fatigue in this journey of ours [quran, 61].
These words did not issue from him concerning any other kind of journey [other than that for learning]. This shows that the journey for knowledge is not without difficulty and that knowledge is a very serious affair.
According to most learned men, [seeking knowledge] is more excellent than battling enemies. So he who perseveres in this [toil and labor] will encounter such delight in gaining knowledge that it overcomes all other delights of this world.
Ta’lim al-Muta’allim by Imam Burhan al-Din al-Zarnuji
On this matter, Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan r [Imam Abu Hanifas deciple] used to say when he spent nights awake solving difficult problems, How far removed are the sons of kings from these [unspeakable] delights! It is obligatory for the student not to be occupied with anything else but knowledge and never turn away from learning. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan r said, Indeed, this trade of [scholarship] goes on from cradle to grave; so he who wishes to refrain from this pursuit of knowledge for even one hour, might as well leave it entirely this very hour.
The learned jurist [Ibrahim ibn al-Jarrah] came to Abu Yusuf r [his teacher] to visit him during his mortal illness, when [Abu Yusuf] was very close to his death.
Abu Yusuf asked him, Is the throwing of stones [during Hajj] on horseback superior to the throwing of stones on foot? When [Ibrahim ibn al-Jarrah] did not know the answer, Abu Yusuf provided the answer himself namely, the early authorities preferred the throwing of stones on foot.
This illustrates that the scholar is one who concerns himself with study at all times. In this way does one partake in the great delight found in this [pursuit]. And it was said that after his death, Muhammad [ibn al-Hasan] appeared to someone in a dream and was asked, What were you doing when you were about to pass away? He answered, I was reflecting on a certain [legal] issue concerning a bondservant downloading his freedom. I didn't even notice the departure of my soul [from my body].
At the very end of his life, Muhammad [ibn al-Hasan] said [out of utter humility], The question of a bondservant downloading his own freedom has occupied me from preparing for this day.
The Time for the Acquisition of Knowledge The time for learning extends from cradle to grave. Hasan ibn Ziyad [disciple of Abu Hanifa r ], who reached the age of eighty years, had taken up the study of theology and juresprudence, and over a period of forty years, he never spent the night stretched out on a mattress.
Then for the next forty years he gave legal opinions. The best period [in life for study] is at the beginning of adolescence. It is necessary to fully immerse oneself in the study of knowledge at all times. But if one becomes over-fatigued by a given discipline, then he should move on to another. Whenever he became tired of speaking, Ibn Abbas r used to say, Hand me the collections of the poets. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan r did not sleep a night without placing before him various texts; when he got fatigued with one of them, he looked into another.
And he drove away sleep with [cold] water, for he used to say, Sleep is induced by heat. Helpfulness and Good Advice A person of knowledge must be sympathetic and helpful rather than jealous, for envy is injurious and devoid of benefit. Shaykh-ul-Islam Burhan-ud-Din used to say, The son of the learned man will be learned himself because the man of knowledge earnestly desires that his disciples become scholars.
So through the blessing that comes from his conviction and compassion, his son too will become learned. And it is reported that Burhan-ud-Din Abdul-Aziz ibn Umar ibn Maza fixed the time for study with his sons, as-Sadr ash-Shahid Husam ad-Din and as-Sadr as-Said Taj ad-Din, at the height of late morning after [the completion] of all his [other] lessons. But [the sons] said: Our natural faculties are tired and worn out at that time.
So their father replied, Foreigners and the sons of the great have come to me from various regions of the earth. I must tend to their instruction first. These types refer to the extent to which students with intelligence. This article has broadly described sustainable learning con- Such a person is highly capable and provides good counsel, scisely engaged into traditional wisdom with strengthening the which results in a good, tolerant, and wise personality.
The half human refers to a person who has ethical considerations in learning. It is urgently necessary, correct opinions but makes no effort to consult with people, therefore, for researchers to critically explore sustainable learn- or who consults with others but does not form his own opin- ing referring to the traditional wisdom with moral purpose.
The ions. Building harmony and peace through mul- moral purpose, which we have done in this article. Our com- ticulturalist theology-based religious education: An alterna- prehensive determinants of the learning process began with the tive for contemporary Indonesia.
Bergsma, A. Self-reported wisdom and which underlie the ethical consideration of learning dynamics. An empirical investigation. Journal of Happiness The key point is that sustainable learning needs a dynamic bal- Studies, 13, Between man and man. London, England: In this regard, we identified Routledge. Virtue ethics and wisdom tradition: Global Virtue encourage the development of skills and spiritual abilities Ethics Review, 3, Colquitt, J.
This should be cess: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, undertaken wholeheartedly, with an emphasis on underlying Conway, T. The importance of the virtues in general ethical considerations such as discipline, spiritual values, and and hospitality in particular. Conway Ed.
Through the instruction of a highly skilled professional cultural dialogue on the virtues pp. Translating spiritual intelligence into lead- thought, feeling, and action can be achieved. Developing stu- ership competencies. Ashgate abilities in terms of thought, feeling, and willingness to acquire Grunebaum, G.
Instruction of the student: The method of perfect personalities insan kamil. New York, NY: Hafidzah, L. Al Albab, 3, Halstead, M. An Islamic concept of education. The nature of memorisation for embodiment. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10, References Hargreaves, A.
The emotions of teaching and educational Adams, L. Hargreaves Ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Method of learning G. Afandi, M. Abel, Trans. Montreal, Crown Press.
McGill University. Huda, M. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Surabaya, Pustaka Pelajar.
Al Miftah. Aim formulation of educa- Anshari, M. Smartphones usage in the classrooms: Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5, Learning aid or interference?
Education and Information Huda, M.
Curriculum conception in Technologies, International Ardelt, M. Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A criti- Journal of Education and Research, 3, Distinctive feature of concept. Human Development, 47, A philosophical inquiry into the book Asyari, M. American International Journal of Improving critical thinking skills through the integration of Contemporary Research, 5, International Huda, M. Ethical foundation of Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5, Tamuri Ed.
The case of Indonesia.
Citations per year
Selangor, Malaysia: Kolej Education, 8, Runesson, U. Pedagogical and learning doi: Islamic spiritual character and Learning studies.
Mediterranean Learning Studies, 4, An alterna- prehensive determinants of the learning process began with the tive for contemporary Indonesia. Bergsma, A. Self-reported wisdom and which underlie the ethical consideration of learning dynamics. An empirical investigation. Journal of Happiness The key point is that sustainable learning needs a dynamic bal- Studies, 13, Between man and man. London, England: In this regard, we identified Routledge. Virtue ethics and wisdom tradition: Global Virtue encourage the development of skills and spiritual abilities Ethics Review, 3, Colquitt, J.
This should be cess: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, undertaken wholeheartedly, with an emphasis on underlying Conway, T.
The importance of the virtues in general ethical considerations such as discipline, spiritual values, and and hospitality in particular. Conway Ed. Through the instruction of a highly skilled professional cultural dialogue on the virtues pp. Translating spiritual intelligence into lead- thought, feeling, and action can be achieved. Developing stu- ership competencies. Ashgate abilities in terms of thought, feeling, and willingness to acquire Grunebaum, G.
Instruction of the student: The method of perfect personalities insan kamil. New York, NY: Hafidzah, L. Al Albab, 3, Halstead, M. An Islamic concept of education. The nature of memorisation for embodiment. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10, References Hargreaves, A. The emotions of teaching and educational Adams, L.
Hargreaves Ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Method of learning G. Afandi, M. Abel, Trans.
Montreal, Crown Press. McGill University. Huda, M. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Surabaya, Pustaka Pelajar.
Al Miftah. Aim formulation of educa- Anshari, M. Smartphones usage in the classrooms: Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5, Learning aid or interference?
Education and Information Huda, M. Curriculum conception in Technologies, International Ardelt, M. Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A criti- Journal of Education and Research, 3, Distinctive feature of concept. Human Development, 47, A philosophical inquiry into the book Asyari, M. American International Journal of Improving critical thinking skills through the integration of Contemporary Research, 5, International Huda, M.
Ethical foundation of Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5, Tamuri Ed. The case of Indonesia. Selangor, Malaysia: Kolej Education, 8, Runesson, U. Pedagogical and learning doi: Islamic spiritual character and Learning studies. Mediterranean Learning Studies, 4, Journal of Social Sciences, 6, Sabani, N.
The significance of edu- Hardaker, G. Understandings of Islamic pedagogy for cative environment to the character development: A study of personalised learning.
International Journal of and Learning Technology, 33, Innovation Education and Research, 3, Sabani, N. Bahkan selain itu masalah akhlak juga kurang diperhatikan, baik akhlak terhadap guru maupun akhlak terhadap sesama murid. Another poem was recited to me: Do not associate yourself with a companion indolent in his ways.
The same applies to all other occupations and professions. His main 4 1 , Special Issue: As a result, Following the self-determined, customized view of learning, by incorporating high aspirations, this leads to assiduity, students should be responsible for choosing their subjects of interest, and exertion.
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